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Critical Thinking, Philosophy, Science

Science According to Wikipedia

According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, science is a systematic enterprise that creates, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), 965–1039 Iraq. The Muslim scholar who is considered by some to be the father of modern scientific methodology due to his emphasis on experimental data and reproducibility of its results

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), 965–1039 Iraq. The Muslim scholar who is considered by some to be the father of modern scientific methodology due to his emphasis on experimental data and reproducibility of its results

The same article,, says that contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, and the formal sciences like mathematics. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science like engineering and medicine may also be considered to be applied sciences. Give the article a read it does a good job, as any proper paper or article should of citing the sources it uses to gather information and data.

It is the opening lines of this article that are of value to the advancement of science literacy. As it explains, science is systematic; it follows a set of rules and protocols that in turn follow other rules and parts of the system. For example, for an endeavour to be scientific it must offer testable hypotheses that are verifiable by experimentation – results of experimentation must then be replicable by others using the same methodology as the original experiments. If this is not the case, the endeavour is not scientific. Furthermore, in science, all theories and hypotheses must be falsifiable or refutable, meaning that when we have a hypothesis or theory we must look for counterarguments that could prove the hypothesis or theory wrong, and only when we have exhausted the possibility of falsifiability can we consider something to be absolutely true. This is according to the philosophy of science, and much to the Work of Karl Popper, the best way to demarcate or to separate the scientific from the unscientific, or science from pseudoscience.

Science is a process, it is a method, and most importantly it is an attitude. We need to adhere to the rules and laws of science if we want to achieve scientific truth. Science is not a thing or a group of people, it is construct, an amalgamation of notions that lead us to the best view of the world and the reality we live in.

Let’s end with this:

The scientific method is an ongoing process, which usually begins with observations about the natural world. Human beings are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear and often develop ideas (hypotheses) about why things are the way they are. The best hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested in various ways, including making further observations about nature. In general, the strongest tests of hypotheses come from carefully controlled and replicated experiments that gather empirical data. Depending on how well the tests match the predictions, the original hypothesis may require refinement, alteration, expansion or even rejection. If a particular hypothesis becomes very well supported a general theory may be developed.


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One thought on “Science According to Wikipedia

  1. Reblogged this on Peyton Dracco and commented:

    A basic explanation of science and the difference between true science and pseudoscience. By The Critical Thinking and Science Portal.


    Posted by Peyton Dracco | March 2, 2016, 7:49 pm

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Weekly Science Quotes

"Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world. Science is the highest personification of the nation because that nation will remain the first which carries the furthest the works of thought and intelligence."

Louis Pasteur


"Science is a way of life. Science is a perspective. Science is the process that takes us from confusion to understanding in a manner that's precise, predictive and reliable - a transformation, for those lucky enough to experience it, that is empowering and emotional."

Brian Greene

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